They can be subdivided into different subgroups depending on the carbon of the C ring on which B ring is attached, and the degree of unsaturation and oxidation of the C ring.
Flavonoids in which B ring is linked in position 3 of the ring C are called isoflavones ; those in which B ring is linked in position 4, neoflavonoids , while those in which the B ring is linked in position 2 can be further subdivided into several subgroups on the basis of the structural features of the C ring. These subgroup are: flavones, flavonols , flavanones, flavanonols, flavanols or catechins and anthocyanins .
Finally, flavonoids with open C ring are called chalcones.
Leucine may well be the most critical amino for the strength athlete. It is a key essential amino acid that has been shown to work independently of insulin, for increasing the phosphorylation (activation) of key proteins involved in the regulation of protein synthesis. What does this mean? Well it means that leucine is the major factor for turning on the processes that maximize protein synthesis—one of the keys to optimizing whole body protein balance. And yeah, M-Stak, being that it's a natural anabolic, ensures that all natural anabolic bases are covered.*
Jessie Szalay is a contributing writer for Live Science. She covers animals, health and other general science topics. Her work has appeared in the Jewish Daily Forward, National Geographic Traveler — Intelligent Travel, Killing the Buddha, Waccamaw Journal and elsewhere. Jessie is finishing her master's degree in nonfiction writing at George Mason University and holds a bachelor of arts degree from Kenyon College. She lives in Washington, ., and is working on a book about the sociological and psychological practice of othering.