Epo steroid wikipedia

More potent for use in blood doping is Co 2+ (administered as Cobalt(II) chloride , CoCl 2 ). Cobalt chloride has been known to be useful in treating anemic patients. [26] [27] Recent experimental evidence has proved the efficacy of cobalt chloride in blood doping. [26] Studies into the action of this species have shown that Co 2+ induces hypoxia like responses, the most relevant response being erythropoiesis. Co 2+ induces this response by binding to the N-terminus (loop helix loop domain) of the Hypoxia inducing transcription factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α, and thus stabilizes these protein complexes. [27] [28] Under normal O 2 conditions, HIFs are destabilized as proline and asparagine residues are hydroxylated by HIF-α hydroxylases, these unstable HIFs are subsequently degraded following a ubiquitin-proteosome pathway, as such, they cannot then bind and activate transcription of genes encoding Erythropoietin (EPO). [27] [28] With Co 2+ stabilization, degradation is prevented and genes encoding EPO can then be activated. The mechanism for this Co 2+ N terminus stabilization is not yet fully understood. In addition to N-terminus binding, it has also been hypothesized that replacement of Fe 2+ by Co 2+ in the hydroxylase active site could be a contributing factor to the stabilizing action of Co 2+ . [27] It is understood however, is that Co 2+ binding permits Ubiquitin binding but prevents proteosomal degradation. [28]

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The number of players who have admitted using steroids in a confidential survey conducted by the NCAA since the 1980s has dropped from percent in 1989 to percent in 2003. [5] During the 2003 season, there were over 7,000 drug tests, with just 77 turning up as positive test results. [5] Scukanec claims that methods were used to get around the drug testing, whether it be avoiding the tests by using the drugs during the off-season, or flushing the drugs out of your system. This was used with a liquid he referred to as the "pink." [5] He stated:

So can you win clean? As much as I’d like to think so, when you have this situation where a guy finishing in the top 10 is using drugs and being beaten by minutes on a mountain climb , I find it difficult to believe that physiologically, the margins can be that large. I believe that the NATURAL, physiological difference between riders is tiny – maybe 1% separates a champion from tenth place. So take a drug that improves performance by, let’s be conservative and say 5%, and that mid-packer still can’t win the race, then you have to wonder about the guy who is winning…?

Epo steroid wikipedia

epo steroid wikipedia

So can you win clean? As much as I’d like to think so, when you have this situation where a guy finishing in the top 10 is using drugs and being beaten by minutes on a mountain climb , I find it difficult to believe that physiologically, the margins can be that large. I believe that the NATURAL, physiological difference between riders is tiny – maybe 1% separates a champion from tenth place. So take a drug that improves performance by, let’s be conservative and say 5%, and that mid-packer still can’t win the race, then you have to wonder about the guy who is winning…?

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