Ecdysteroids testosterone

Testosterone is significantly correlated with aggression and competitive behaviour and is directly facilitated by the latter. There are two theories on the role of testosterone in aggression and competition. [78] The first one is the challenge hypothesis which states that testosterone would increase during puberty thus facilitating reproductive and competitive behaviour which would include aggression. [78] Thus it is the challenge of competition among males of the species that facilitates aggression and violence. [78] Studies conducted have found direct correlation between testosterone and dominance especially among the most violent criminals in prison who had the highest testosterone levels. [78] The same research also found fathers (those outside competitive environments) had the lowest testosterone levels compared to other males. [78]

P-Glycoprotein inhibitors such as ecdysteroids or capsicum carotenoids are able to inhibit the efflux protein known as P-Glycoprotein. This efflux protein is responsible for ejecting Icariin into the intestinal lumen after it has been absorbed [9] which is also its main excretory pathway when connected to bile acids to prevent reuptake. [15] Coingestion of Icariin with a P-glycoprotein inhibitor increases the AUC of Icariin, and could plausibly increase the bioactivity of Icariin (although this has not been demonstrated). [15]

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Ecdysteroids testosterone

ecdysteroids testosterone


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