Biosynthesis of plant steroid glycosides

In the absence of GA, many DELLAs are present to repress GA responses, but the formation of the GA-GID1-DELLA complex increases the degradation of DELLAs. [69] The SCF complex is composed of SKP1, CULLIN, and F-BOX proteins. [70] F-box proteins catalyze the formation of polyubiquitin on target proteins to be degraded by the 26S proteasome. [70] The formation of the GA-GID1-DELLA complex is believed to cause a conformational change in DELLA, which enhances recognition of DELLAs by F-box proteins. [71] Next, the SCF complex promotes ubiquitylation of DELLAs, which are then degraded by the 26S proteasome. [72] Degradation of DELLAs allows GA regulated growth to resume. Thus, GA stimulates growth by activating the degradation of DELLAs. [69]

Opines and opine-like substances are not restricted to crown galls tumors. The very first opine discovered, octopine, was initially isolated from octopus muscle. Similar derivatives have been isolated from muscle tissue of certain marine invertebrates: alanopine, strombine, and tauropine. Opines like acetopine and nopaline can also be formed in normal callus and plant tissue as a result of arginine metabolism. Saccharopine is an intermediate in the metabolism of amino acid lysine and occurs in fungi , higher plants and mammals, including man. The poisonous mushroom Clitocybe acromelalga is a source of four opine type amino acids: valinopine, epileucinopine, isoleucinopine and phenylalaninopine.

Biosynthesis of plant steroid glycosides

biosynthesis of plant steroid glycosides

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