The contents of an HFA are under pressure and are released quickly, making it difficult to coordinate inhalation of the particles. The spacer chamber suspends these particles until your child breathes in, reducing the amount of coordination required to inhale the particles, thus easing the delivery of medication into the lungs. Adults should also use a spacer chamber, especially if they have problems using the HFA. Spacer chambers can also reduce the deposition of particles in your mouth or tongue and therefore may reduce side effects from medications . Spacer chambers should not be used with a dry powder inhaler (DPI).
The caudal approach to the epidural space involves the use of a Tuohy needle, an intravenous catheter, or a hypodermic needle to puncture the sacrococcygeal membrane . Injecting local anaesthetic at this level can result in analgesia and/or anaesthesia of the perineum and groin areas. The caudal epidural technique is often used in infants and children undergoing surgery involving the groin, pelvis or lower extremities. In this population, caudal epidural analgesia is usually combined with general anaesthesia since most children do not tolerate surgery when regional anaesthesia is employed as the sole modality.